Down’s syndrome is named after Dr. Langdon Down who was the first to clinically describe this case, thereafter discovering its direct cause in 1866. It is defined as a congenital disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome. This disorder results in varying degrees of intellectual disability and physical anomalies, even though some children inflicted with Down’s syndrome grow at a similar pace to their peers without that disorder, in so far as sitting, standing, walking and talking. However, a large segment of these children demonstrate varying delays in growth. Early intervention plays a vital role in developing the aptitude and skills of persons with Down’s syndrome in a way that diminishes the growth gap between them and their counterparts and works to limit further complications. On the other hand, these youngsters may benefit from special education programs or special classes in mainstream schools, since some learn to read and write, albeit not at the level of other children.
Sensory Processing Disorder
This is defined as a disorder or failure in any of the senses, where the sensory cells responsible for transmitting sensory stimuli to the brain are unable to do so. These disorders comprise the following:
- Visual Impairment: This is a complete or partial visual impairment that negatively influences all aspects of human growth, whether cognitive, social or emotional. Visually impaired persons require appropriate learning and training on one hand, coupled with modifications in teaching methods and additional syllabuses to fulfill their special individual needs in various areas (reading, writing, recognition and development of senses).
- Hearing Impairment: This is a far-reaching and varied disability that may be evident or hidden, thereby resulting in problems and difficulties in childhood without pinpointing the exact reasons for academic failure. Hearing impairment usually goes hand-in-hand with a number of disabilities such as Down’s syndrome, cerebral palsy, autism and others.